Landscape lighting design, what needs to be considered?
With the development of urban landscape lighting, various lighting designers have accumulated rich experience.
Every link of planning, design, construction, acceptance, management and evaluation seems to have certain patterns and standards. Many excellent examples are also born.
We come back to, however, there is need for rational thinking, serious summary, examining whether the planning, execution, design conformed to the specification requirements, the safety and reliability of the project is complete, energy saving index whether conform to the requirements of the country, and so on.
From the perspective of design, whether the concept of design is innovative, whether the plan is optimized, especially whether the wording of the scheme meets the requirements, whether the design text is standardized, standardized and so on.
This paper thinks about the problems that should be paid attention to in the design of urban landscape lighting design.
The problem of landscape lighting design should be considered.
The image of a building should reflect its functionality, such as government agencies should be more serious, and should not be as commercial as shopping malls;
The settlement should create a quiet atmosphere;
The entertainment place such as ballroom should have lively and lively feeling, so night use illume to represent the image of the building should create corresponding atmosphere and artistic style.
The style of lamps and lanterns should also consider the style of the subject and social history.
Consider decorative finishes.
People feel about object brightness, depending on the object reflected light intensity to the human eye, when the surface reflection coefficient is very low, or the reflection spectrum of material surface can do not tally with the projected light color (e.g., will play on the red green light), increase the flux in order to improve the brightness, often cannot achieve the desired effect and waste of energy.
Therefore, the quality of decorative materials in landscape lighting design cannot be ignored.
The lighting of the key points should be designed according to its characteristics, which can not only make the key points prominent but also have more personality.
Consider the relationship between monomers and the whole.
Landscape lighting design must have the overall planning to make the whole group have the key, the foil, the rhythm sense, the whole city has the style, has the taste.
In order to achieve this goal, the monomer design should have the whole concept, the light intensity and light color should be coordinated with the surrounding environment and the status of the exposed objects in the environment, and meet the requirements of the planning.
At present, some units are not allowed to highlight their own uniqueness, regardless of the surrounding environment, arbitrarily raise the illuminance, abuse the color light, easily cause waste and destroy the whole effect.
The main management department shall request and limit the units according to the plan.
The urban night landscape is composed of various landscape elements, which form an interrelated relationship, such as the logical relationship between elements and elements, the topological relation, the relationship between elements and the whole.
These relationships cannot be measured by a pattern or a type.
Features a large range of city night view lighting environment, public observer's visual range at a certain moment can't be in the fully cover the entire urban lighting landscape, in terms of forming impression, the order is local before the whole, in forming local impression and overall feeling there is a time lag.
It is necessary to fully understand and grasp the relationship between the urban landscape elements and the transformation of the relationship between the light and tone and the strong and weak.
The lighting layout should be reasonable, overall coordination, the focus is prominent, there is a detailed, the level is clear.
Consider the color of light.
The same light-colored light shines on the objects of different colors, showing different colors, especially in some environments where the colors are rich and beautiful during the day, and the color projection should be especially careful.
In addition, because the light in the night is much darker than the light in the day, people's comfortable reaction to the light color is different from the basic illumination of the environment.
For example, during the day, a large area of green space gives a feeling of youth, vitality and vitality, but a green light at night can often create a gloomy and chilly feeling.
Light projected on the building at the same time are often large, and the size of the patch area of people's psychological reaction is have a certain influence, but the right light can also strengthen the lighting effects, such as different parts of a building can be projected to emphasize the structure of the different light level and so on.
Therefore, use color light carefully to prevent color imbalance.
Consider safety and reliability.
In landscape lighting design and construction, the lighting equipment, electrical equipment and control system should ensure the maturity, reliability and safety of the technology.
Security means that it does not cause harm or damage to the environment.
Safety also includes the mechanical strength, electrical, construction, operation and installation of the lamp itself and its distribution equipment.
Lamps and lanterns should be arranged according to appropriate concentration, the laying of the line can be relatively concentrated.
The position of lamps and lanterns should be easy to install, maintain.
Otherwise, once there is a fault, it is not easy to repair, or during installation and maintenance, it is easy to have safety accidents.
At the same time, it should not focus on the light effect of the night and ignore the lamps in the daytime.
Attention is also paid to the protection, including natural disasters and the damage, destruction and loss of the lamps.
When a bright light at night in the line of sight to 45 ° above or below the projection can cause glare, make the person cannot identify objects, walk and watch, even produce traffic accident, so the light projection direction to avoid the line of sight of people.
On the other hand, it is necessary to prevent light pollution and affect people's normal life and work.
If put into the bedroom to influence rest, throw in the sky influence astronomical observation.
Considering energy saving
The way a lot of night landscape lighting, can be cast from outside, also can be in the pervious to light, from the external projection in the architectural design should pay attention to the light problem, attention should be paid to shorten the optical path to reduce the power consumption, and does not affect the day much more at the same time.
The inner light is more closely related to the architectural design.
Therefore, new construction designers should consider these issues in a unified way.
Consider hierarchical control
Should be preset according to daily or festival grade control, under different control state should have complete artistic effect, this can save electricity.
The position, style and color of the landscape lighting fixtures will damage the daytime environment without considering the daytime image.
A good consideration can also brighten the day.
According to the actual situation reasonable design lamp position, should be able to see the light not to see light, have adornment effect lamps and lanterns, modelling, color should have ornamental.
The main factors to be considered in the design of the scheme.
Natural environment factor
Natural environmental factors include physical environment, chemical environment, biological environment and social environment.
The composition of the physical environment factors including temperature, flow, pressure, sound, light, radiation, etc., they are in a state of nature, can give a person a direct stimulation, make people get feeling behavior reflect.
The most direct factor in the contact with landscape lighting is "light".
Light is a language that can express the design philosophy and artistic pursuit of architects.
Light is a kind of invisible software which controls the function operation and color rendering of the city and architecture;
Light is "the fourth dimension of architecture".
Therefore, we should actively understand the light, observe the light, apply the light, actively participate in the design of the light, and integrate the light into the planning and creation.
Chemical environment includes all kinds of gas, water, dust, chemical and other factors.
The oxidation of the air to the lamps, the corrosion of the water to the lamps, and the obstruction of the dust to the light will affect the final result.
Choose lamps and lanterns to achieve waterproof, dustproof grade.
The biological environment consists of animals, plants, organisms and microbes.
Humans belong to biology.
When designing the landscape of buildings, we should consider plant species, growth condition, distribution and law of change.
Also need to the surrounding flowers and plants, trees, rest facilities and so on assist design, thus form a complete light whole.
Social environment refers to the humanistic environment centered on interpersonal relationship.
It covers a wide range of content and has an impact on landscape design.
Cultural environment factor
It is a comprehensive and comprehensive ecological environment including politics, art, science, religion and aesthetics.
Environment is the accumulation of culture, slowly affecting the environment.
The fixed environment includes buildings, Bridges, lights, fountains, lawns, sculptures and so on.
The lighting design of landscape designers is to create an atmosphere, a culture that is called out.
This kind of culture can not be seen, can feel, affect the state of mind.
If the lighting of the architectural landscape is too technical, it will make people feel stiff.
Ignoring the cultural state, people feel passive acceptance.
The focus of landscape lighting should be natural and harmonious.
Therefore, when designing, designers should consider the layout, line, color, proportion, scale, texture, light, rhythm and rhythm of architecture and landscape.
Let the viewer feel natural, take the initiative to find, to dig, to experience, to ponder the taste.
Builders and investors.
The market economy determines that the owners must start from their respective economic interests and adopt different attitudes towards the implementation of the lighting project.
Moreover, the differences between the owner's understanding of the building, the lighting of the landscape and the individual's thinking, consciousness, interests and aesthetic views have created a colorful lighting effect.
Color is closely related to people's emotions and is also within the builder's investor factor.
Blue makes people feel peaceful and satisfied;
Yellow gives people a sense of glory and excitement;
Red makes people eager to win and rejuvenate;
The combination of red and green makes people feel strong, reliable and firm.
The pale blue is a feeling of security and pride;
Red, orange, yellow and other warm colors can make people excited, the atmosphere is warm and so on.
The building elevation should be carefully chosen green, blue, violet and other cool colors, the use of improper easy to make people feel cold.
Technical level of lighting equipment.
Attention should be paid to the application of high - tech and high - tech lighting equipment in landscape lighting engineering.
Technological innovation: innovation and innovation, new technology, new light source, new materials, high technology.
Intelligent factors should also be considered.
The feasibility of the scheme.
Including the investor, designer conception and intention, scene environment three aspects.
Designers should fully understand the properties, functions, environment, viewpoints, appearance features, architectural styles and architectural finishes of the landscape.
Analysis may watch the lights several viewpoints - far and near, high and low, around the four directions, setting out the main viewpoints and best viewpoint, and thus, the conception and the general effect of the landscape lighting.
The scene environment includes the brightness of the landscape background, the lighting conditions of the local night scene, the local people's preference for colors and preferences, and the power supply situation.
According to the current regulations of China, the design is divided into two stages: preliminary design and construction drawing design.
Due to urban landscape lighting is different from other construction projects, it is a complicated system engineering, involving architecture, aesthetics, environment, human physiology aspects of discipline, is the second time the life to the art of light carrier to create, with particular emphasis on the landscape art effect and cultural taste, so the urban landscape lighting lighting engineering design procedure is divided into three stages: the scheme design, preliminary design and construction drawing design.
This article only analyzes the content that is easy to ignore in the design of the scheme.
The programming of the scheme is very important.
Shall be carried out in a large number of site investigation, field exploration, design, analysis and calculation on the basis of determine the overall guiding ideology of the design scheme, the position of the main viewpoints and focus on content and words.
To establish the overall guiding ideology of the design scheme.
The overall guiding ideology of the design scheme is the basis and standard of design.
Including design objects in the relationship of the elements of the scene, the relationship between the design objects and the environment, the design scheme to express the theme of the thought, design standard, the brightness of the light source color, etc.
It should also include the status quo and analysis: including the situation of the lighting site, and analyze the existing problems.
Analyze location and land, clarify geographical location, and related environmental conditions;
Analyze the scenery, layout and the function layout, especially emphasize the function of analysis.
Establish the position of the main viewpoint.
For monomer building, it generally refers to the direction of facing the street or facing important institutions;
For a particular region, find the axis or principal direction of the region.
Find the central area and main view line, main view point.
The relationship is very important.
Also consider lighting lamp light, radiation, psychological analysis of tourists behavior (analysis of visitors to the viewer to watch best time, best view point and psychological feelings), truly people-oriented.
Identify key performance content.
Each scenic spot or building has its own unique design style and intention.
In particular, landmarks and small items.
Want to grasp this point strictly, as the top priority of the use of lamplight, through meticulous and exaggerative technique emphasize key, make the finishing point.
Write the design idea, expression technique, static state, illumination effect description and so on.
Description detail design.
To find out the details, conduct characteristic analysis, plan approval, and plan statement.
How to deal with which part should be clarified.
Determine the level of illumination.
Be sure to set a proper lighting value.
Consider two factors.
Lighting prospect: that is to be photographed.
Its color and reflective properties.
Be sure to consider the inherent color and avoid the contrast.
The light transmittance and the reflection coefficient are considered for the transparent objects.
Background lighting: the illumination of an object's ambient light and adjacent buildings or landscape.
Brightness is always relative, set against the background and changed with the environment.
The background is brighter, and more light is needed to achieve the desired effect. The background is darker and less light is needed.
In short, to highlight the foreground, make sure the brightness of the lighting foreground is higher than the background brightness.
Determine lighting mode, lighting source and luminaire.
There are many ways of landscape lighting, and there is no fixed mode. It must be determined according to the specific situation of the subject.
A large number of engineering practice surfaces, the use of diversified spatial lighting method is better than a single method.
The determination of illuminant and lamps and lanterns is very important, plan must indicate, use what light source, lamps and lanterns, use what illuminative way, achieve what environmental effect.
Statement of other contents.
The application of the color light, the design of the lighting control system, the design of maintenance management measures, the project budget estimate, the expected lighting effect picture is indispensable in the text of the lighting design scheme.
Special emphasis on renderings.
The design of landscape lighting design also simulates the color rendering, but the effect picture is only the author's subjective imagination.
The implementation of creative solutions for every individual, depends on the lighting design, it includes the lamp type, power, lamp, projection direction and calculation data, and so on many aspects, lighting scheme results whether can achieve the result of intent, can't just rely on rendering.
Therefore, it is necessary to draw the real effect picture by the calculation data of the brightness distribution of the light.
Otherwise, it will cause unexpected difficulties for the construction.